50651. The outer layers of a transistor are ________ the sandwiched layer.
50652. Typical values of voltage amplification for the common-base configurations vary from ________ and the current gain is always ________ .
50653. If a value of is specified for a particular transistor configuration it will normally be used for ________ calculations.
50654. The level of ________ is determined and displayed by advanced digital meters if using diode-testing mode.
50655. The doping of the sandwiched layer is ________ that of the outer layers.
50656. The lower doping level ________ the conductivity and ________ the resistivity of the material.
50657. The leads of a transistor are typically made of ________.
50658. If the positive lead of an ohmmeter is connected to the base and the negative lead to the emitter, a low resistance reading would indicate a ________ transistor and a high resistance reading would indicate a ________ transistor.
50659. The active region of a transistor is bounded by the ________.
50660. All amplifiers should have at least ________ terminals with ________ terminal(s) controlling the flow between ________ other terminal(s).
50661. The "on" and "off" characteristics refer to ________ limits while the small-signal characteristics indicate the parameters of importance to ________ operation.
50662. An OL indication on an advanced digital meter indicates ________ while checking a transistor.
50663. The common-collector configuration has a ________ input impedance and a ________ output impedance.
50664. For practical transistors the level of alpha typically extends from ________ to ________ with most approaching the higher end of the range.
50665. One p-n junction of a transistor is ________-biased and the other one is ________-biased in the active region.
50666. There is(are) ________ in the internal construction of a TO-92 package.
50667. The ________ region is the region normally employed for linear (undistorted) amplifiers.
50668. The magnitude of the base current is typically on the order of ________ as compared to ________ for the emitter.
50669. In the cutoff region the collector-base junction is ________-biased and the base-emitter junction is ________-biased for a transistor.
50670. The level of ________ is determined and displayed by advanced digital meters.
50671. When checking a transistor by ohmmeter, a relatively ________ resistance is displayed for a forward-biased junction and ________ resistance for a reverse-biased junction.
50672. How much is the base-to-emitter voltage of a transistor in the "on" state?
50673. How many layers of material does a transistor have?
50674. Which of the following equipment can check the condition of a transistor?
50675. For what kind of amplifications can the active region of the common-emitter configuration be used?
50676. In the active region, while the collector-base junction is ________-biased, the base-emitter is ________-biased.
50677. In AM, the carrier is changed by a modulating signal. What parameter of the carrier is changed?
50678. For a four-quadrant linear multiplier, what is the output voltage, given input voltages of Vx = +2 V and Vy = –10 V?
50679. The output spectrum of a ________ modulator includes upper-side and lower-side frequencies and the carrier frequency.
50680. Amplitude modulation is a ________ process.
50681. What does VCO stand for?
50682. A phase-locked loop (PLL) is a feedback circuit consisting of a
50683. If a 1 MHz carrier is amplitude modulated with a 5 kHz audio signal, the upper-side frequency is ________ kHz.
50684. The purpose of the balanced modulator is to remove the carrier frequency.
50685. The mixer takes the RF signal along with the audio signal to produce the IF signal.
50686. The IF of an FM receiver operates at a center frequency of 455 kHz.
50687. A balanced modulator is used in standard AM to obtain the sum and difference frequencies.
50688. The demodulator recovers the audio signal from the IF output.
50689. Selectivity in a receiver is provided by the resonant circuits of the IF section.
50690. An AM signal is made up of a carrier, an upper-side frequency, and a lower-side frequency.
50691. Frequency modulation is achieved by varying the frequency of an oscillator with a modulating signal.
50692. A VCO is a variable capacitance oscillator.
50693. Amplitude modulation is the process of varying the radio frequency with the modulating frequency.
50694. A certain fiber-optic cable has the following characteristics: n1 = 1.82 and n2 = 1.73. What is the value of θc?
50695. An AM demodulator can be implemented with a linear multiplier followed by a ________ filter.
50696. The intermediate frequency in a standard AM receiver is
50697. In order for a light ray to propagate along a fiber-optic cable, what must the relationship be between the angle of incidence and the critical angle?
50698. Light may be propagated along a fiber-optic cable in which of the following modes?
50699. Calculate the voltage across the 91 k resistor.