48702. Fusible-link PROMs are programmed by removing the desired fuse links using a microscope and tweezers.
48703. When a computer is executing a program of instructions, the CPU continually fetches information from those locations in memory that contain (1) the program codes representing the operations to be performed and (2) the data to be operated upon.
48704. A ROM that allows the user to program data into the chip by permanently opening fusible links is the EPROM.
48705. A write operation may also be referred to as a "fetch" operation.
48706. Address multiplexing is used to reduce the number of address lines.
48707. PROMs are basically the same as mask ROMs, once they have been programmed.
48708. RAM is nonvolatile.
48709. Cache memory is used in high-speed systems.
48710. Dynamic memories, such as the 2118 16K × 1 RAM, have to multiplex the address bus.
48711. ROM is a type of memory in which data are stored permanently or semipermanently.
48712. EEPROMS can be electrically erased and reused.
48713. DRAM uses a cross-transistor configuration.
48714. Main computer memory is usually DRAM because of its high density and low cost; cache memory is usually SRAM because of its high speed.
48715. Information stored in an EPROM can be erased by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light.
48716. A CD player is an example of a device that has random access capability.
48717. The most widespread application of ROMs is in the storage of data and program codes that must be available on power-down in the microprocessor-based systems. These data and program codes are called firmware because they are firmly stored in hardware.
48718. One of the advantages of DRAMs is their ability to store data without needing periodic refreshment of the memory contents.
48719. A typical RAM will write (store data internally) whenever the Chip Select line is active and the Write Enable line is inactive.
48720. When two or more devices try to send their own digital levels to a shared data bus at the same time, bus contention will take place.
48721. The main advantage of bipolar (TTL) memories over MOS memories is speed.
48722. Testing and troubleshooting the decoding logic will not reveal problems with the memory chips and their connections to the CPU busses.
48723. Once a PROM is programmed it can be changed by applying a small electrical charge.
48724. In a register stack, data moves up but not down.
48725. Most flash chips use a bulk erase operation in which all cells on the chip are erased simultaneously.
48726. Assume a ROM to be tested is compared with a known good ROM. If the checksums differ, the ROM is ________.
48727. The checkerboard pattern test is used to test ________.
48728. Information that is stored in an EEPROM ________.
48729. The difference between RAM and ROM is that ________.
48730. The TMS44100 has ________ address inputs.
48731. A type of memory that is accessed serially (one location after the other) is a ________.
48732. The basic purpose of tristate or open-collector outputs on a memory is to ________.
48733. The checksum method is used to test ________.
48734. Because 4096 = 212, a 4K × 1 RAM requires ________ address bits to access all locations.
48735. To reduce the number of pins on high-capacity DRAM chips, address ________ is used so that a single pin can accommodate two different address bits.
48736. The number of 16k × 4 memories needed to construct a 128k × 8 memory is ________.
48737. The minimum number of address lines needed for a 64K memory is ________.
48738. The 2147 4K × 1 static RAM contains 4096 storage locations storing one bit each. ________ 2147 RAM memory chip(s) is/are needed to configure an 8K × 8 memory.
48739. A CD-ROM is a form of read-only memory in which data are stored as ________.
48740. A type of read/write memory available with MOS technology is ________.
48741. All rows in a 2118 dynamic RAM need to be refreshed ________.
48742. ROM access time is defined as ________.
48743. In DRAM operations, it is assumed that R/W is in its ________ state during a ________ operation.
48744. The major advantage of dynamic RAM over static RAM is ________.
48745. The address space of a RAM memory can be expanded using a decoder and additional memory ICs. The output of the decoder should be connected to which input line of the memory?
48746. The memory operation that presents data on the memory outputs after entering a new address is called ________.
48747. Dynamic memory is memory ________.
48748. Because of their nonvolatility, high speed, low power requirements, and lack of moving parts, ________ have become feasible alternatives to magnetic disk storage.
48749. The memory operation that stores data into a memory location after entering a new address is called ________.